District : Chikmagalur
State : Karnataka
RESEARCH ACCOMPLISHMENTS OF R.R.S.
From he initiation of the research station, several varieties in Cardamom and paddy, which are suitable under topographical situations of hill zone, have been developed. Apart from these, important packages to maximise the yield, resistant to biotic and abiotic factors for different crops of hill zone have been developed by the research station. The salient findings of research carried out at the Regional Research Station, Mudigere are summarised as under
1). Crop Improvement-New Varieties :
Mudigere-1 : It is a Malabar prostrate clonal selection has been released for cultivation in the state during 1984. It has gainmed lot of popularity among cardamom growers, with an average dry capsule yield of 250-300 Kg per hectare with compact panicles.
Mudigere-2 : It is also a Malabar type and clonal selection, released during 1994, the average yield of M-2 is 475 KG per hectares, with non pubescent leaves and panicles are not compact with good quality capsules.
P6 : This clone having recorded higher dry matter accumulation and leaf area index consistently over years, is found promising as a drought tolerant clone.
CL-730 and CL-692 : New Cardamom clones selection from germpalsm collection were found promising by recording 1.57 Kg and 1.53 Kg of green capsule yield per clump respectively as against Mudigere-1 ( 1.2 KG and Mudigere-2 1.4KG). The clone CL-692 have been proposed for farm trials during 2001-02.
CL-D-237 : A new clone developed from open pollinated seedling progenies was found promissing. The average yield of green capsule per clump was 1.80KG as against 1.40KG in Mudigere-2 and 1.20KG in Mudigere-1.
Among the several clones studied, clone Mudigere-1 exhibited relatively low genetic variability, hence seedling progenies of this clone could still be used when clonal material is not available for scale planting.
2). Crop Protection :
Thrashing the clumps of old peels, leaves and suckers during May-June, spraying with Nuvacron (June-July) 35% E.C., 1.25 ml/litre up to 1.5 plant height followed by another spray with Zolone 25% E.C., 2ml/litre 30 to 40 days later removal of border affected suckers leaving 2" from the ground, were found effective in suppressing both thrips and borders the major pests of cardamom.
Evaluation of plant products against thrips revealed that, Neemmark, 15G and Nimbecidine were at par with monocrotophos in reducing the thrips damage.
Studies have indicated that an increase in yield upto nine per cent could be obtained by keeping two to three bee boxes/ha of cardamom.
Root grubs (basilepta sp.) infestation in nursery could be effectively checked by incorporating 3% G Furadan @ 6 to 8 Kg/Acre.
Damage by rodents and birds could be considrably minimised by adopting trapping, clean cultivation, timely harvets and by baiting with Bromodiolone (0.005%) or Rodafarin cake.
Dithane M-45 (0.25%) + Ridomil (0.1%) were found to be the most effective fungicides for controlling damping off and leaf spot diseases in cardamom nursery.
Clump rot disease could be effectively checked by drenching the affected and neighbouring clumps with 1% Bordeaus mixture once before the onset of monsson(June) and again after the end of monsoon (August).
Katte disease spread was found to be effectively checked by removing afftected clumps, old and decayed suckers and plant parts by regular surveys and by avoiding planting of clones from affected gardens.
Studies have indicated that aphids could acquire and transmit virus from the infected leaves only when moisture level was upto 45.
3). Crop Management :
Scarification of cardamom seeds for ten minutes with 25 per cent aciod followed by Bavistin+Captan seed treatment (@4G/Kg of seed) was found to increase germination and protect seedlings from seed rot and damping off deseases.
If the seeds of cardamom are sown very late in the season (nov-Dec) covering the nursery beds with polythene sheets soon after sowing was found to enhance seed germination by nearly 30 per cent.
In the various mulches tried covering seed beds, paddy straw was found to be the best and most economical.
Studies to findout the optimum age of Cardamom seedlings for planting have indicated that, the two year old seedlings are superior in getting early and high yields.
In view of the change in rainfall pattern in recent years, planting of cardamom even in the season (June-July) was found and suitable and desirable in the season for early establishment and growth.
A spacing of 1.8m x 1.8m ( 3025 plants/ha) was found to be optimum for cardamom to get maximum yield.
For rapid multiplication of suckers, application of 32.5 g of N 25 g P205 and 50g of K20/plant was found desirable.
A fertilizer dose of 37.5:37.5:75 kg/ha for one year old crop during September and 75:75:150kg of NPK/ha from second year onwards in two split doses (during May and September) were found to be optimum to get maximum yeild in cardamom.
Comprehensive studies on shade in relation to cardamom productivity have revealed that one third of the sunlight in the form of filtered light was found to be optimum for growth and production of cardamom.
Soils of the region being acidic in nature, application of lime was found to be beneficial.
Among several mulches tried in the main field, leaf mulch was found to be the best for growth and conserving soil moisture.
Application of ethrel at 250 ppm under higher light intensity (15K.lux) gave highest number (50) of suckers as against 25 suckers in control ( without growth regulator) with normal light intensity(5K.lux).
Spraying 25 ppm NAA or 2.5 ppm 2, 4-D twice at monthly intervals soon after fruitset (June-July) was found to minimize fruit drop in cardamom.
Drastic reduction in cardamom yield was observed when irrigation was delayed beyond January II week.
Studies on cardamom nutrition indicated significant response to Nitrogen (100 kg/ha) as compared to Phosphorous and Potassium under artificial shade.
Clonal crop of Mudigere-1 was found to yield 35 per cent higher than seedling crop under rainfed conditions.
Recycling of nutrients in cardamom plantations, shade trees like jack, sampige, halvana were found relatively more promosing and their leaf fall amounts to a biomass of around 10 t/tha/year and this was equivalent to 100 kg N, 10 kg phosphorous and 90 kg potash.
Two species of wild climbers (Scheflera) in cardamom plantation have been found to be beneficial as these species attract and maintain honey bees foraging at different times of the day. As such, it is desirable to conserve these climberrs in cardamom plantations.
Identified local flora which enhances the bees activities in cardamon, which is an important requirement for obtaining good yields.
Proliferation of planting units, closer spacing of 0.3 m x 0.9m has been found encouraging as higher number of planting units ( 88,000/ha) can be accomodated, which intern enhances the productivity.
Application of Borax @ 10kg/ha and Molybenum @ 0.25kg/ha indepently and in combination increased the cardamom yield by 10 per cent.
1). Crop Improvement-New Varieties :
A few Paddy varieties have been released for the Paddy growers in the region :
INTAN : An high yielding variety released during 1974 with medium duration, suitable for low land situations but susceptible to blast disease.
IET-7191 : The medium duration, high yielding, blast tolerant rice variety was released during 1987 for midlands of hills zone. This variety is tolerant to Blast disease.
KHP-2 (IR-10781) : The medium duration, high yielding, blast tolerant to blast variety, released during 1990, for the midlands of hill zone. This variety is also tolerant to blast disease.
CTH-1 (MUKTHI) : It was released in 1992, as an high yielding, early duration rice varieties for late planting and for upland conditions, tolerant to blast disease.
Hemavathi (DWR-4107) : A high yielding, long duration blast and temprary submergence tolerance rice variety was released during 1994 for low lands of hill zone.
KHRS-26 (KHP-5) : A high yielding, blast tolerant, semi tall, medium duration rice veriety was released in 1998 as a substitute to Karna, Jaya and G 318 in uplnad for direct sowing situations of hill zone.
Sharavathi (IR-57773) : A long duration (175-180 days), tall (135-140cm), non-lodging, blast and temporary submergence tolerant, bold and red kernelled rice variety suitable for par bioling purpose was identified for release during 2001 as a suppliment to Hemavathi in low lands of hill zone.
IET 13901 : A medium duration, semi tall, blast tolerant rice variety, identified for farm trials during Kharif 2000 in mid land situations of hill zone.
2). Crop Protection :
For blast disease management in paddy, raising seedlings by wet nursery method and applying only FYM at the time of sowing keeps the nursery free from blast.
Among neem based insecticides screened for efficacy in leaf roller control Nimbecidine was superior, which was safer to natural enemies.
An integrated mangement strategy for Coorg hairy caterpillar a pest on paddy has been developed.
A dry seed dressing for Paddy with Corbendizim @ 4g/kg of seed before sowing was found to reduce udubatha disease by 85 per cent in paddy.
3). Improved Crop Management Practices :
Weedicide Butachlor 50 EC and Anilphos 30 EC are effective in controlling weeds in paddy nurses
Out of 34 genotypes screened for iron toxicity, the entries puttabatta, Biliakki were promising
Chromoleana or Eupatorium, a common weed in wasteland and forest of hill zone is a viable alternative to traditional green manure crops for rice cultivation. Incorporation of this plant as green manure saves 25% of recommended dose of nitrogen fertilizers.
There has been a shortage in supply of rock phosphate and single super phosphate in the country. In view of this, Gupsaphos applied along with glyricidia has been found to be equally good.
In parts of hill zone, minimum temperature goes below 15oC, leading to very slow growth of paddy seedlings in the nursery. Vigorous, healthy seedlings ready for transplarent polythene sheet ( 300 guage), 45 cm above ground level for the first 15 days.
Under continous rainfall conditions in hill zone, application of fertilizers for ice the time of planting may become difficult. It has been found that application can be delayed at the most for two weeks from the date of planting.
For late planting CTH-1, 3 and 4 were found to be promising varieties as compared to IR-20 and Mangala.
Rice Hull Ash (RHA) @ 1kg/sq.mt applied to rice nursery before sowing, helps in obtaining healthy, vigoruous and blast free seedlings under heavy rainfall conditions.
4). Research on other crops :
Turmeric variety BSR-1 and Co waas found to be suitable for growing in the inter space of sapota plantations.
Incorporation of Glyricidia to the soil @ 5 t/tha 3-4 weeks prior to planting was found to increase the efficiency of Rock Phosphate applied at planting time.
Fertilizer dose of 250:120:120 Kg NPK/ha was found optimum for mulberry in hill zone
In rubber 3 high yielding seedling progenies were identified, they are found to yield more than 100g of dry rubber/tapping
Vernicompost gets ready in about 65 days during monsoon, 75 days dyring winter and 40 days during summer, in the hill zone
Under the National Watershed Programme at Chikmagalur, where traditionally a single crop was cultivated in a year, a double cropping system involving a cereal followed by a highly remunerative crop like chiili or a vegetable has been successful
Out of 31 different forest tree species grown for different purposes, Honne, Bete, Nandi(Timber), Pongemia, Dhupa, Antuvala(Medicine), Mahagany, Jacaranda, Jacaranda, Copper Pod(Avenue), Acacia and Casurina ( Fire Wood) were promissing under hill zone conditions
The Soil and Moisture losses could be minimised by opening trenches of 0.45m x 0.45m ( Width & Depth) between coffee rows across the slope (9%) under hill zone conditions
Sudan type grass (Sorghum almum) is found to be a suitable alternateto khus as it serves both as a fodder bund stabilizer
OD-19 : a commercial Lemon grass variety was found significant superior in its performance over other varieities under rain fed situations in hill zone and recorded the essential oil yield of 408.6/Ltha compared to other varieties viz., Praman (308 Lt.ha) and Pragathi (272.0 lt/ha)
BIO-13 : a citeronella variety has recorded the maximum essential oil yield of 340 lt/ha when compared to Manjusha (296.6 lt.ha) and Mandakini (281.3 lt.ha) under rainfed situations in hill zone
Cowpea variety V-16 tolerant to leaf spot and trust has been recommended as a substitute to C-152 for paddy fallows under protective irrigation during summer
V-16 and TVX944E in cowpea, JL-24 and DL-3-30 in groundnut and Monetta and KHSb-2 in Soyabean were identified as high yielding varieties for summer cultivation under protective irrigation
A protocol has been developed for large scale in vitro multiplication of anthuriums using both nodes as well as seeds as explants